Chronology of International Participation
The Métis emerge as a distinct Indigenous people—and Nation—in the historic Northwest during the late 18th century during the advent of the fur trade.
Great Britain and the United States agree to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary between Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains. The Métis are not consulted.
The Hudson’s Bay Company, under pressure from Great Britain, sell the territory of Rupert’s Land to the Government of Canada. The Métis are not consulted.
Section 35(2) of the Constitution Act recognizes the Métis people as a distinct “Aboriginal Peoples of Canada”. Existing Aboriginal and Treaty rights of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples are recognized and affirmed under Section 35(1).
The Métis National Council is established as the national and international voice of the Métis Nation, receiving its mandate and direction from the Métis Governments.
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is adopted by the General Assembly.
The Supreme Court decision in R v Daniels recognizes the Métis as “Indians” under Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1982. This decision affirms the Government of Canada’s fiduciary relationship with the Métis. The ruling in this case brought broader, significant impacts upon the Nation-to-Nation, Government-to-Government relationship as it pertains to land rights and areas of federal jurisdiction
The Canada-Métis Nation Accord is signed between the Government of Canada and the Métis Nation, as represented by the Métis National Council and its Governing Members. The Accord commits Canada and the Métis Nation to renew the nation-to-nation, government-to-government relationship.
The General Assembly adopts resolution A/RES/71/321 entitled “Enhancing the Participation of Indigenous Peoples’ Representatives and Institutions in Meetings of Relevant United Nations Bodies on Issues Affecting Them.
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Act (“the Act”) receives Royal Assent and becomes law. In accordance with Section 2 of the Act, all federal departments and agencies with statutory authority must ensure that all federal laws, policies, programs, and regulations of past, present, and future are consistent with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).
Métis rights are recognized, and the full and effective participation of the Métis Nation in international affairs is established. Canada and the Métis Nation work together internationally to help each other promote their international objectives and aspirations.